Full article: quality of bamboo shoots during storage as affected by high hydrostatic pressure processing

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Xuanlin Lia Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food và Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu China;b Key Laboratory of Food Non-Thermal Technology, Engineering technology Research Center of Food Non-Thermal, Yibin Xihua University Research Institute, Yibin, ChinaView further tác giả information
Yage Xinga Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food và Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaCorrespondencexingyage1
Yuru Shuia Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food & Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu China;b Key Laboratory of Food Non-Thermal Technology, Engineering giải pháp công nghệ Research Center of Food Non-Thermal, Yibin Xihua University Research Institute, Yibin, ChinaView further author information
Xiaotong Caoa Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food & Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaView further tác giả information
Ruohan Xua Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food và Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaView further author information
Qinglian Xua Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food and Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaView further tác giả information
Xiufang Bia Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food & Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaView further author information
Xiaocui Liua Key Laboratory of Food Bio-technology, College of Food and Bioengineering, Xihua University, Chengdu ChinaView further author information
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ABSTRACT

The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the unique of bamboo shoots during a storage period of 15 d at room temperature was investigated. The results indicated that when compared to lớn other methods, the bamboo shoots treated at 300 MPa for 10 min displayed the best chất lượng when stored. The weight loss và titratable acidity (TA) in these samples presented a minimal increase at the over of storage, from 0% and 0.1317 g kg−1 khổng lồ 0.67% và 0.2793 g kg−1, respectively. The respiratory intensity, sensory acceptability, and color of the bamboo shoots were significantly preserved and were 25.39 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1, 7.55, & 77.65, respectively. Moreover, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity of the treated bamboo shoots were inhibited effectively. In addition, the samples that were treated at 400 MPa for 15 min displayed the lowest firmness and microbiological content which at 51.15 N và 84.6 CFU g−1, respectively, while the samples treated at 300 MPa for 10 min showed slightly higher values. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that HHP treatment can be considered efficient in preserving the quality of bamboo shoots during storage at room temperature.


Introduction

Over 1250 species of edible bamboo have been reported worldwide.<1,2> Bamboo, widely cultivated in Asia, is a rapidly growing plant, which shoots are edible and used as one of the important ingredients in Asian cuisine.<3> Bamboo shoots, which are the tender stalks emerge from the nodes of the (pseudo-) rhizome of bamboo plants, are wrapped in protective, non-edible leaf sheaths, with the edible part consisting of meristematic cell tissue with regions of rapid cell division & differentiation.<2,4> The consumption of bamboo shoots has the benefits of improving digestion, relieving sweating & hypertension, preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer, because bamboo shoots are rich in functional nutrients such as high–quality protein, vitamins, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, and low in fat & sugar contents.<5–7> In recent years, fresh bamboo shoot has become increasingly popular all over the world due lớn its higher nutritional value, however, its tissue lignification and flesh browning lead to rapid deterioration of its edible chất lượng during postharvest.

The rapid increase in the firmness & stiffness from the cut-end toward the tip limits the life span of post-harvest bamboo shoots, which may be the result of various detrimental changes & tissue lignification during aging.<4,8> Luo et al.<9> have reported that postharvest wounding of bamboo shoots will cause an abnorma rise in lignification, Xi et al.<10> had been reported similarly results. Actually, lignification, occuring during the course of normal tissue development, is a biochemistry process of sealing a plant cell wall by lignin deposition.

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<11> The lignification of plant tisssues involves the polymerization of monolignols mainly derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway, which begins with the Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) reaction that forms cinnamate derivatives and ends with the peroxidase (POD) reaction to form the lignin polymer units.<12,13> Therefore, delaying the lignification of bamboo shoots should be an effective way lớn reduce unique loss during transportation & storage. Until now, various treatments such as chitosan coating,<14> modified atmosphere packaging,<15> gamma irradiation,<7> or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment<16> have been shown khổng lồ delay the lignification process, however, the application of ultra-high pressure in the preservation of bamboo shoots has few reports.

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), also known as Ultra-high pressure (UHP) or high pressure processing (HPP), is a rapidly emerging non–thermal processing technology, which killing pathogenic microorganisma in foods at pressures of 100-1000 MPa and at room temperature or lower, thereby prolonging the shelf life of food & reducing the damage of heat–sensitive food ingredients.<17–20> Unlike in thermal treatment, HHP can keep the food temperature at the mix temperature all the time, because the pressure transmittance is instantaneous & uniform throughout the food, regardless of its size or shape.<21,22> The effect of HPP on food unique characteristics is mainly attributed lớn the stability of covalent bonds to high pressure,<23> which not only ensure food quality, including not only texture, shape, & color, but also the flavor và nutritional characteristics of fresh food.<24–26> Packaged food is processed under HHP to achieve sterilization, change of enzyme activity, material modifification, and accelerating of decelerating physical and chemical reactions.<27,28> Zhang et al. Reported that HHP technology mutates basic physical properties by breaking weak bonds such as hydrogen bonds.<29> In the past two decades, HHP has been widely applied khổng lồ food industries such as meat product, dairy product, starch-based product, seafood, puree, juice & other food industries.<30> However, few publications about the bamboo shoot by ultra-high pressure treatment are available.

The aim of our study was to lớn investigate the effects of HHP treatment on the chất lượng of fresh bamboo shoots during storage. The sensory, total number of colonies & enzyme activities of bamboo shoot, before and after different HHP treatment, were comparatively analyzed. Changes in chất lượng under HHP treatments were observed to provide a theoretical basis for bamboo shoots storage and subsequent deep processing.


Materials

Bamboo shoots were provided by Pengzhou Qiangsheng Agricultural Development Co. Ltd. (Sichuan, China). Plastic vacuum packaging materials (15 centimet × 25 cm, δ 0.06 mm) were supplied by Xizhilong Packing Material Co. Ltd. (Hebei, China). The HHP equipment was manufactured by Shanghai Wodi Intelligent Equipment Co. Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Plate count agar was purchased from Beijing Oboxing BiotechnologyCo. Ltd. (Beijing, China). Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, guaiacol, pyrocatechol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reagents were all supplied by Chengdu Kelong Chemical Reagent Factory (Sichuan, China)


Processing công nghệ for HHP of bamboo shoot

Fresh bamboo shoots of uniform kích cỡ and harmless are selected, blanched in boiling water for 2 minutes khổng lồ kill most of the microorganisms attached khổng lồ the surface of the bamboo shoots for further processing. The bamboo shoots were blanched for a short time without peeling the outer leaves, which had no effect on the enzymatic activity. After cooled and drained at room temperature, the sample peeled off the outer leaves, washed with pure tap water until no impurities and soil, and cut in half lengthwise. About 20 g of bamboo shoots were vacuum-sealed in plastic vacuum packaging materials. All the experiments were performed at 25°C. A total of 10 treatments were designed, as detailed in Table 1, with 30 bags per treatment for a total of 300 bags. The relative indexes were measured every 3 days during the room temperature storage period of 15 days.